The comparison of problematic smartphone use across countries is based on a global survey: Olson, J. A., Sandra, D. A., Veissière, S. P. L., & Langer, E. J. (2023). Sex, age, and smartphone addiction across 41 countries. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. Open-access preprint.
The increase in problematic smartphone use over time is based on a meta-analysis: Olson, J. A., Sandra, D. A., Colucci, É. S., Al Bikaii, A., Chmoulevitch, D., Nahas, J., Raz, A., & Veissière, S. P. L. (2022). Smartphone addiction is increasing across the world: A meta-analysis of 24 countries. Computers in Human Behavior, 129, 107138. Open-access preprint.
The smartphone reduction intervention was tested in a randomised controlled trial: Olson, J. A., Sandra, D. A., Chmoulevitch, D., Raz, A., & Veissière S. P. L. (2022). A nudge-based intervention to reduce problematic smartphone use: Randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. Open-access preprint.
The modified Smartphone Addiction Scale used on this website was tested in an earlier study: Olson, J. A., Stendel, M., & Veissière, S. P. L. (2020). Hypnotised by your phone? Problematic smartphone use correlates with hypnotic suggestibility. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11(578), 1–7.
This research was partly supported by the Canada First Research Excellence Fund, awarded to the Healthy Brains for Healthy Lives initiative at McGill University. Jay Olson additionally acknowledges funding from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and Fonds de recherche du Québec — Santé.
Smartphone Addiction Scale studies
The Smartphone Addiction Scale and its short version were developed and validated in two studies by Kwon and colleagues: Kwon, M., Lee, J.-Y., Won, W.-Y., Park, J.-W., Min, J.-A., Hahn, C., Gu, X., Choi, J.-H., & Kim, D.-J. (2013). Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PLOS ONE, 8(2), e56936. Kwon, M., Kim, D.-J., Cho, H., & Yang, S. (2013). The smartphone addiction scale: Development and validation of a short version for adolescents. PLOS ONE, 8(12), e83558.